Modern readers who love Jane Austen are eager to find ways to acquit her of being a woman of the long 18th century. Clutching My Pearls is my ongoing blog series about my take on Jane Austen’s beliefs and ideas, as based on her novels. Click here for the first in the series.
In Jane Austen: the Secret Radical, Dr. Helena Kelly argues that Sense & Sensibility is a covert attack on primogeniture. Dr. Kelly writes: “[Austen] wasn’t alone in questioning the fundamental fairness of primogeniture. The feminist writer Mary Wollstonecraft did it too, in her 1792 book A Vindication of the Rights of Woman.” The phrasing of this sentence might mislead Kelly’s readers into thinking that the only two people in Georgian England who wrote about primogeniture were Mary Wollstonecraft and Jane Austen. That’s obviously not the case. Many people wrote about primogeniture, and inheritance was an anxious topic of discussion among families, especially daughters and younger sons.
Historian Rory Muir has written that there was more open resentment of primogeniture in Tudor and Stuart times, than in Regency times. He suggests it is because there were more opportunities for second sons in Austen's time. Because of war, exploration and colonization, the younger son could join the army or navy or the East India company. Of course this ended up being fatal to many of them.
Did Austen hold radical views on the topic? Was she even aware of Wollstonecraft?...
Fundamentally though, Austen didn’t need anyone to explain the downside of primogeniture to her. If she had ever picked up Wollstonecraft, the arguments against primogeniture would not have been a revelation. She had only to look at her own family. She was upset when her father turned the Rectory in Steventon over to James, the oldest son. Of course, a post as a clergyman cannot be divided among all your children; but Mr. Austen also sold off many of the family possessions, including Jane's pianoforte. Family lore states that Jane fainted when she learned she had to leave her home and turn it over to her brother and sister-in-law. Later, she complained, “The whole World is in a conspiracy to enrich one part of our family at the expence of another.”
Now that the political and personal context surrounding primogeniture is understood, let’s look at what Austen says and doesn’t say about primogeniture in her novels. Did she, in fact, question the fundamental fairness of primogeniture?
The Dashwood sisters in Sense & Sensibility, the children of a second marriage, are left with a small inheritance when their father dies a year after inheriting the estate (known as Norland) from his uncle. Norland goes to the son of his first marriage, John Dashwood.
John Dashwood’s wife Fanny talks him into ignoring his father’s dying injunction to be generous to his step-mother and his half-sisters, and the disinherited widow and daughters are forced to leave Norland (but not before Elinor falls in love with Fanny’s brother Edward).
All of this takes up the first five chapters of the book, with a great deal of detail about the family tree and who inherits what.
First, she faults the old uncle for tying up the estate to pass it down entirely to John Dashwood and to John Dashwood's little boy, "who, in occasional visits with his father and mother at Norland, had so far gained on the affections of his uncle... as to outweigh all the value of all the attention which, for years, he had received from his niece and her daughters."
Then she faults John and Fanny Dashwood for being insensitive and selfish. Mrs. Dashwood does not "dispute" the right of her daughter-in-law Fanny to move in immediately after her husband's funeral: "the house was her husband's from the moment of his father's decease; but the indelicacy of [Fanny's] conduct... was to her a source of immovable disgust."
Then Fanny talks John out of giving his half-sisters a generous settlement. Austen shows us a man who fails to do his moral duty, and she gives us examples of his weak and avaricious nature throughout the book. Nor does she exempt Elinor and Marianne's father, or their mother, “a woman who never saved in her life,” from criticism for failure to prepare for the inevitable. The primogeniture is inevitable, the selfishness and mismanagement are not.
Primogeniture and entail, as scholar Zouheir Jamoussi notes, come up in every one of Austen’s novels--and many, many other novels and plays as well. It's not as if Austen’s readers would have been forcibly struck by her description of a situation they’d never encountered before.
The issue is made more explicit in Pride & Prejudice than in Sense & Sensibility. It is Mrs. Bennet who argues most often, and most loudly, against the fact that her daughters are left out of the inheritance.
And who says: “Your father’s estate is entailed on Mr. Collins, I think. For your sake,” turning to Charlotte, “I am glad of it; but otherwise I see no occasion for entailing estates from the female line. It was not thought necessary in Sir Lewis de Bourgh’s family." Yes, it's Lady Catherine de Bourgh. So the two people in Austen who protest most explicitly against entailing estates to men only are Mrs. Bennet and Lady Catherine. You would think that if Austen wanted to editorialize against primogeniture, she would have put those sentiments in the mouths of the sympathetic characters, not her fools.
There is no evidence that Austen thought the entire institution of primogeniture had to go. In Sense & Sensibility she explicitly said "No one could dispute [Fanny Dashwood's] right to come" to Norland before her father-in-law was cold in his grave. Nor does she hint at any alternative to primogeniture. Mrs. Ferrars, the matriarch of the Ferrars family, does have it in her power to divide a large inheritance between her sons. Austen doesn't portray a mother who treats her sons equally--although she could have used her novel to show us how things ought to be. Instead, she portrayed a narrow-minded, vindictive woman who punishes her oldest son by giving the money to his younger brother. As Mrs. Jennings remarks, "Everybody has a way of their own. But I don’t think mine would be, to make one son independent, because another had plagued me.” Likewise, Mrs. Allen cuts Willoughby off from his inheritance to punish him and Fanny Dashwood controls her husband John. If primogeniture and patriarchy go together, it's odd that Austen gives us three women in one novel using their power to cut people off from inheritances.
As this next passage from Sense & Sensibility indicates, Austen seems to regard a more equitable world as pie-in-the-sky wishful thinking.
"I wish," said Margaret, striking out a novel thought, “that somebody would give us all a large fortune apiece!”
“Oh that they would!” cried Marianne, her eyes sparkling with animation, and her cheeks glowing with the delight of such imaginary happiness.
“We are all unanimous in that wish, I suppose,” said Elinor, “in spite of the insufficiency of wealth.”
There is a subtle but definite sarcasm in her editorial insertions: it is "a novel thought" to hope someone will give you a large sum of money. Young Margaret doesn't realize how many before her have had the same idea. But the prospect of receiving a large fortune is "imaginary" for most.
Oddly enough, the impossible did happen to Austen's brother Edward. He was adopted as the heir of some very wealthy relatives. Near the end of Austen's life, another rich uncle died, leaving his fortune to his wife, instead of spreading the wealth around in the family. Austen admitted that she was disappointed. That's still a far cry from advocating that the laws of inheritance be reformed.
Austen portrayed dysfunctional marriages--is she arguing that the institution of marriage should be abolished? Austen wrote about negligent parents—is she against the nuclear family? As reviewer Alexandra Mullen perceptively writes: “the aim of Austen’s satire is not to raze the world to ground zero but to amend, as much as humanly possible, the world we have inherited.” And for Austen, this relates more to private conduct than public institutions.
In my novella Shelley and the Unknown Lady, Mary Crawford is surprised and pleased to learn that the poet she's met in Italy, Percy Bysshe Shelley, is the heir to a baronetcy. Click here for more.
The opening of Sense & Sensibility, with its outline of an old uncle who dies and leaves the estate to a man who dies and leaves the estate to his son, might strike modern readers as a strange way to begin a novel, but it was not at all unusual in Austen's time. Novels of the day often introduced characters by explaining their class position and their financial situation; what kind of family they were descended from, what kind of estate they had, whether they were well-off or in debt, what their annual income was, and so forth. More about this in my three part post about on class and money in Austen.